As some of the previous examples have already shown, many of these separate effects come together within a larger unit of several phrases or clauses to give echoic
effects through chiasmus, anaphora, ploce, and other figures within a larger speech structure.
Given the dearth of published data, we sought to examine the effects of echoic
and other collateral response requirements during listener training trials on typically developing children's vocal responding.
Skinner (1959) called such verbal operants echoics
A Comparison of Textual and Echoic
Prompts on the Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior in a Six-Year-Old Boy with Autism.
Ross & Greer (2003); Tsiouri and Greer (2003) were successful in inducing first instances of echoic
and independent mands and tacts in children with no functional vocal (echoic
or independent) communication.
tact, mand) could be acquired from echoic
or textual (i.
A prompted mand was defined as any occurrence in which the instructor provided an echoic
prompt to evoke a mand response from the participant.
The instructor may then provide the learner with an echoic
If the student did not emit the mand, an echoic
model of the autoclitic mand was presented by the teacher, providing the student with another opportunity to respond.
We also report data on the participants' echoic
responses to stimuli as well as emergent tact responses (the speaker component of Naming).
The elementary verbal relations (mand, tact, echoic
, intraverbal, textual, and transcriptive) are viewed as the elements of which more complex forms of verbal behavior are composed and as developing as a function of reinforcing contingencies (Sundberg & Michael, 2001).
Included here are (1) the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to induce echoics
(Sundberg, Michael, Partington, & Sundberg, 1996), (2) rapid motor imitation to induce echoics
to mand and echoics
to tact functions (Ross & Greer, 2003; Tsiouri, & Greer, 2003), and (3) direct echoic
to mand and echoic
to tact instruction (Williams & Greer, 1993).
The results showed that children acquired new vocal responses without direct reinforcement, echoic
training, or prompts.
Horne and Lowe (1996) identified a unit of behavior they called the name relation or naming, which permits generalization among echoic
, tact, and listener behavior repertoires.
Vocal responses with the same topography as the vocal verbal stimulus that preceded it.