The connection between past and future is a central theme within dystopian literature in general.
Baccolini (115) points to dystopian literature's intricate relationship to history.
According to Baccolini dystopian literature shows that the future does not necessarily lead to progress: that the present can develop negatively.
In dystopian literature there is a preoccupation with the past, with a focus on the control of history (Baccolini 115).
In dystopian literature the future therefore cannot be disconnected from the past, and the past is often used to give insight into the dystopian future that is portrayed.
In this paper I explore the role of references to South African history in the construction of the future in a selection of the Afrikaans dystopian novels published after 1999.
Bush was considered no less Orwellian than Barack Obama, and during the second Bush presidency the Left was generous with the dystopian accusation.
The dystopian threat, itself a trope that is designed to provoke fear, is appearing with ever-increasing frequency, applied to even the most trivial of issues.
As mentioned, parties on both the Left and Right employ dystopian imagery.
If we combine the type of "free" speech that is cut loose from epistemological constraints with a discursive landscape in which the overstatement is the new rhetorical baseline, our social, political, economic, and educational conversations will necessarily result in dystopian hyperbole.
The first notable twentieth-century dystopian novel was Jack London's The Iron Heel.
After the publication of the Iron Heel, however, schooling emerged as a common theme in many dystopian novels.