However, in investigating characteristics of the Afrikaans dystopian futurist novels published after 1999 it becomes apparent that the past is also an important premise in the visions of the future that is created (compare Barendse, "Geskiedenis, geheue, verantwoordelikheid" and "Die miskruier, hoop en die verlede").
The connection between past and future is a central theme within dystopian literature in general.
Baccolini (115) points to dystopian literature's intricate relationship to history.
According to Baccolini dystopian literature shows that the future does not necessarily lead to progress: that the present can develop negatively.
In dystopian literature there is a preoccupation with the past, with a focus on the control of history (Baccolini 115).
In dystopian literature the future therefore cannot be disconnected from the past, and the past is often used to give insight into the dystopian future that is portrayed.
In this paper I explore the role of references to South African history in the construction of the future in a selection of the Afrikaans dystopian novels published after 1999.