Considering that and bearing in mind that erotic stories are a common euphemistic and dysphemistic ground, it is the aim of this paper to explore euphemism, dysphemism and x-phemism in a corpus which consists of the three books of the mentioned trilogy so as to observe if their usage depends on sexes and how these phenomena merge with metaphorical or metonymical devices to avoid a possible loss of face or highlight a taboo.
11); whereas dysphemism is the process whereby the most pejorative traits of the taboo are highlighted with an offensive aim to the addressee or the audience, or to the concept itself or denotatum.
Despite the close links between metaphors and x-phemism, "euphemism and dysphemism can be accurately and insightfully described in terms of cognitive abilities" (Crespo-Fernandez, 2011, p.
of euphemism (husn al-kinaya), to refer to dysphemisms.
The short life of most euphemisms and the process of euphemism degradation--degeneration into dysphemisms and orthophemisms through contamination by the taboo topic and then replacement by other euphemisms--was already observed in the third/ninth century by al-,144.
Shakir al-Ashur'Beirut: Muassasat al-Matbuat al-Arabiyya, 1981]), which, despite expectations, does not offer a discussion and examples of euphemisms and dysphemisms.
I would venture to guess that the euphemisms entered the language directly from Hebrew, whereas the dysphemisms
are ultimately Hebrew but directly borrowed from Yiddish.
Goose is attested in the Semi-bilingual dictionary of euphemisms and dysphemisms in English erotica meaning 'a prostitute' (Sanchez Benedito 1998:186), sense that only appears recorded in the OED, but not in the other dictionaries consulted.
Sanchez Benedito, Francisco 1998 Semi-bilingual dictionary of euphemisms and dysphemisms in English erotica.
What do euphemisms, dysphemisms, and political correctness have to do with taxes.
My point is not to condemn the use of euphemism and dysphemism, to decry schadenfreude, or to take up the cudgels with Rush Limbaugh concerning political correctness.
In this respect, Chamizo Dominguez and Sanchez Benedito (2000: 68-70) distinguish three types of euphemisms and dysphemisms according to their degree of lexicalization: lexicalized (those in which the figurative meaning is regarded as the normal or literal meaning); semi-lexicalized (the substitute is associated with the taboo because of its inclusion in a conceptual domain traditionally tied to the forbidden concept); and creative (the euphemistic or dysphemistic item is the result of a novel association with the taboo, only accessible in its phraseological context).
In this sense, a contextually consistent conceptualization significantly contributes to the understanding of euphemisms and dysphemisms.
Euphemism and Dysphemism, Language Used as Shield and Weapon.
4) Usare el termino disfemismo de acuerdo con el significado de <<a dysphemism is an expression with connotations that are offensive either about the denotatum or to the audience, or both, and it is substituted for a neutral or euphemistic expression for just that reason>> (Allan y Burridge 1991: 26).