But in case they all dope, all have to bear the costs of doping.
The obvious disadvantage of such a strategy is that it not only reduces the incentive to dope but also and primarily the incentives to train and to pursue an athletic career.
nd], sanctions can be too high and can violate the participation constraint such that talented athletes refuse not only to dope but also to enter the competition.
The intuition here is that a strong player matched with a weak one only wants to dope as long as the weak one does, who, in turn, is only interested in doping as long as the strong one stays clean.
Comparing the utility levels with and without doping, an athlete will dope if and only if [[delta].