Three variables highly relevant to the debate on the hypnotic state were included: absorption, dissociation, and altered state.
Decisively, the psi scores failed to relate to dissociation as measured by the DES, but they did show a moderately significant relationship to absorption.
Despite the above failure to find support for dissociation (DES) scores in predicting psi scores, this relationship may not be entirely invalid.
A skeptical explanation would of course be that hypnotizability together with dissociation enhances fantasy proneness, and paranormal experiences are merely a feature of this fantasy proneness leading to the delusionary belief of being psychic.
The longer we have been occupied with these phenomena the more we have become convinced that the splitting of consciousness which is so striking in the well-known classical cases under the form of 'double conscience' is present to a rudimentary degree in every hysteria, and that a tendency to such a dissociation, and with it the emergence of abnormal states of consciousness (which we shall bring together under the term 'hypnoid'), is the basic phenomenon of this neurosis.
Although Freud began with dissociation as the foundation of his psychoanalytic theory, he later discarded this concept and instead proposed "repression" as a psychological defence mechanism involved in the formation of neurosis.
Similar to Janet, Jung believed that psychological trauma is an important cause of formation of a complex, but there is a crucial difference between the dissociation theories of Jung and Janet (Everest, 1999; Haule, 1984; Noll, 1989).
The program, gaussian curve fit analysis of TM (GcTm), was designed to determine Tms of amplicons by fitting gaussian curves to derivative data from dissociation analyses (Fig.
Although the use of LCGreen can improve the determination of amplicon Tms, it will not eliminate the need for 3 dissociation analyses to be performed, because the primary source of variation stems from the Tm-probe measurements rather than those of the amplicons.
Hypnotic susceptibility involves dissociation in a structured setting, says Spiegel.
In general, the role of dissociation in PTSD has been underestimated," says psychiatrist Arthur S.
At first dissociation is a positive adaptation to severe trauma, but once the self is divided in a powerful way it becomes difficult to reintegrate the personality," says Spiegel.
In line with the earlier theoretical contributions, Holmes, Brown (19) have suggested a distinction in the concept of dissociation as "compartmentalization" and "detachment".
Nevertheless, research provides strong evidence that assumptions of a dissociative continuum may not be valid for pathological dissociation but for nonpathological dissociative tendency (8, 16).
Wolf and her colleagues (41,42), using latent profile algorithm, have replicated and extended the previous findings that dissociation is a salient aspect of PTSD and individuals with a tendency to dissociative symptoms constitute a subset of people with PTSD.