The correlations in our study may overstate the strength of the relationship in general, however, because the deck in our study with the lowest dislodgeable
arsenic concentrations also received the lowest amount of foot traffic going from the deck to the indoor floor surface.
However, the more durable exterior colored (opaque) paints can significantly reduce dislodgeable
arsenic (Lebow et al.
study include the relatively small number of children, the fact that the study recorded time spent on the playgrounds, not time spent on the playsets, and the fact that the study did not include surface wipe analyses of the structures; hence, it is not possible to confirm that dislodgeable
arsenic levels from the play structures in the Kwon et al.
In these studies researchers may collect and analyze samples such as air, water, dust, soil, and dislodgeable
surface residues to determine the pesticide(s) of interest.
4 m from the spray source (milligrams per square meter), SA is body surface area in contact with surface (square centimeters), SS is weight of soil adhered to skin (milligrams per square centimeter), AB is dermal absorption rate, DR is dislodgeable
residue, CF is the conversion factor to account for square meters to square centimeters, and bw is body weight (kilograms).
Thus, these results (Figures 3-5) suggest that Cu, Cr, and As co-leach from CCA-treated wood, either as dislodgeable
complexes/residues or as separate species.
Therefore, oral ingestion of dislodgeable
arsenic via hand-to-mouth contact appears to he an important exposure pathway, and we agree with the authors when they recommend that children wash their hands after playing in CCA-treated playgrounds.
2004) reported significantly elevated dislodgeable
soluble arsenic loads on (one or both?
A combination of toy surface wipes and toy extractions were analyzed from the duplicate toys to evaluate both dislodgeable
and total components of the pesticide in/on the duplicate toys.
copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated wood surfaces.
This study extends previous research that has detected dislodgeable
residues of OP pesticides in rural dwellings occupied by migrant and seasonal farmworkers (Lu et al.
In some instances, materials present on a rug are called dislodgeable
dust, but the definition does not truly describe all contact issues.
Each sample was spiked with 3,4-D as a surrogate recovery standard (SRS) at a level similar to that expected for 2,4-D: 100 ng for air samples (filters, PUF, plates), surface wipe samples, and carpet dislodgeable
residue samples, and 500 ng for dust samples.
Stilwell also measured dislodgeable
arsenic from vertical playscape surfaces (poles) by direct hand contact and found the amounts removed ranged from 5 to 632 [micro]g/[cm.
Application Distribution type Time period type Deposited chlorpyrifos surface residue loadings Broadcast (target) < 1 day Lognormal 1-7 days Lognormal 8-30 days Lognormal Broadcast (nontarget) < 1 day Lognormal 1-7 days Lognormal 8-30 days Lognormal Crack and crevice < 1 day (target) Normal < 1 day (nontarget) Lognormal 1-7 days (target and Lognormal nontarget) 8-30 days (target Lognormal and nontarget) Dislodgeable
chlorpyrifos surface residue loadings Turf Liquid broadcast < 1 day Normal 1-7 days Normal 8-30 days Normal Granular broadcast < 1 day Lognormal 1-7 days Uniform 8-30 days Uniform Mean or Application min, max type Time period (ng/[cm.