The redefinition of literacy tests was the imaginative solution to a particular problem: the state had never used a literacy test, which had been the chief means of disfranchising
Blacks in the South.
Blum often uses terms such as "sanctify" or "legitimate" to describe religion's role or function in broader debates about disfranchising
blacks or imperialist ambitions.
The issue dominated state politics from about 1901 to 1911, but the state legislature three times narrowly voted down disfranchising
In the antebellum era, African Americans agitated for political rights in spite of a state law that required property in order to vote, virtually disfranchising
all black men.
The Commonwealth's record in awarding contracts to minority-owned businesses reflects an environment where agencies and their officials are not held accountable for violating the law and disfranchising
minority contractors from the procurement process.
Towards the efforts of disfranchising
senior citizens, especially those who have been precluded from full participation in the market place on a level playing field over the course of their lives, the Cato Institute, the Heritage Foundation, Frontiers of Freedom, and other organized efforts are being put forth that would lock a 'new serf system' into the U.
Legal disfranchisement measures and de jure railroad segregation played relatively minor roles in disfranchising
and segregating southern blacks.
Whether they had political majorities or not, the oligarchs had their disfranchising
constitutions firmly in place in North Carolina in 1900 and Alabama in 1901, and roofing them out in 1903 would not have been easy.
As a result, many Virginians believed a new constitution that contained more effective means of disfranchising
illiterates was necessary.
Brownlow's Radical Republican government, appointed by departing military governor Andrew Johnson in January 1865, had moved quickly to secure its position by officially emancipating slaves, ratifying the Thirteenth Amendment, and disfranchising
with increasing severity former Confederate sympathizers.
These efforts then culminated in the new disfranchising
constitutions and constitutional amendments of 1890-1908 that, in the most enduring legal form available, froze into place an electorate drained of nearly all black, and many poor white, voters.