Visibility still plays an important role and can cause those with high visibility to suffer greater disesteem
than those with lower visibility.
They recognize that the institutions of the market and the law require robust, supportive norms and argue that these norms are supported by the attitudes that people entertain of esteem and disesteem as well as virtue.
Moral and religious ideas, as reflected in human values and beliefs, give meaning to esteem by establishing behavioral criteria for esteem and disesteem.
accepting that moral rules are followed, not because they are moral, but because not following them brings disesteem
If any person thinks the examination of the rest of the animal kingdom an unworthy task," Aristotle wrote, "he must hold in disesteem
the study of man.
The irrumator incurred no serious disesteem
, while to fellate was to act out an accepted inferior role, passive concentration on another's pleasure, servicing another - all postures appropriate to women, slaves, and prostitutes of both sexes, but never to free men.
Further, Oakley argues, a person may deserve esteem or disesteem
for emotions felt without an accompanying feeling of personal responsibility for them.