The effectiveness of such decisions depends on the difference between perceived and real potential discriminations.
Because encountered discrimination is not possible before entering a job, the present model includes only three components--vocational choice strategies that deal with perceptions of potential discrimination and work adjustment strat egies that deal with perceptions of potential and encountered discriminations.
Again, it is important to attend to both formal and informal encountered discriminations.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons may be considered "sexual minorities" because of the pervasive prejudice, social oppression, and discrimination against them (Croteau, 1996; Elliott, 1993; Hetherington, Hillerbrand, & Etringer, 1989; Morgan & Brown, 1991).
Work discrimination has been a major topic in the rapidly growing literature concerning vocational issues of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons (e.
Although different scholars have discussed various conceptualizations of work discrimination and coping strategies, a comprehensive conceptual framework that provides an integrative perspective is lacking.
Work discrimination is defined here as unfair and negative treatment of workers or job applicants based on personal attributes that are irrelevant to job performance.
A review of literature suggests that work discrimination is multifaceted.
This first dimension is important because it illustrates that work discrimination involves not only formal actions or decisions but also work atmosphere and interpersonal relationships.
The distinction between potential and encountered discrimination bears significant implications for the vocational behavior of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons.
It is undeniable, however, that the real structure is far from ideal because of various kinds of work discrimination.
The proposed work discrimination model has important implications for conceptualizing coping strategies.