An important caveat is that I do not suggest a difference in quality or quantity of discouragement between males and females; in fact, I did not study females at all (though they undoubtedly face discouragements, too) and so cannot make any claims about gender differences.
In this section I define the multiple sites, sources, and types of discouragement faced by males entering the teaching profession and the means by which they cope with these discouragements.
I suggest similar discouragements would be common for most prospective teachers, regardless of their gender.
While the man's discouragements never explicitly invoke gender--he never, according to Stanley, says anything like, "you shouldn't teach because you're a man"--these still draw on clearly gendered discourses, including maxims that men be economically successful, have high status, and be a "big wheel" by being smart.
This bar incident presents a number of discouragements and coping strategies in short succession.
It is clear, nonetheless, that his career roulette was brought on by specific discouragements based on his abilities.
In some ways, the men in this study acquiesced to the discouragements from the outside, particularly in instances where they limited their behavior or planned changes to their teaching careers.
Indeed, this passage typifies the sites and sources of feedback for these student teachers as well as the strategies and performances the men used to combat discouragement so they can persist.
Stanley's performance of resistance intrigues me more than the content of the discouragement.
To say that the teasing was not discouragement, then, was the only non-active way to solve the problem.
Any contender needs to receive encouragement votes by nine of the council members and no discouragements by the permanent members.
In addition to the men, there is a female contender, Latvian President Vaira Vike-Freiberga, who came in third place with seven encouragements, but six discouragements and two no opinions.