According to the Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language there are four types of discourse, namely direct discourse
(DD), indirect discourse (ID), free direct discourse
(FDD), and free indirect discourse (FID) (McArthur).
From this point on, Bontemps does not return to a communal free direct discourse
, but instead intersperses individual interior monologues with direct narration and direct discourse
They do not belong to that phase of theology where theology mediates from the past into the present, but are a dimension of what is mediated into the present in direct discourse
in this "new stage of meaning" grounded in interiority analysis.
She subordinates that potential discursive plurality to her unified voice by evading their direct discourse
and keeping their characters half-acknowledged on the margins of the story.
He weaves together indirect and direct discourse
so that the voice of an omniscient narrator is punctuated by conversations so immediate and vivid, they arouse almost a guilty pleasure in overhearing them.
Free indirect discourse is not framed within quotation marks as direct discourse
would be, but neither is it preceded by third person references to the speaking (or thinking) character and past tense verba dicendi, such as 'she said' or 'she thought,' which characterize simple indirect discourse" (35).
The difference is even more prominent with regard to knowing and feeling: the commenting narrator in Henry James knows in the present while the characters can only know in the past due to the absence of a direct discourse
mode for knowing; the characters in Goethe and Gogol on the other hand know in the subjunctive and present, again, just like the narrator.
She also notices changes from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, including a tendency to infuse collections with represented speech and a shift from indirect to direct discourse
, which is accompanied by an effacement of narratorial presence.
In the section on The Color Purple Boesenberg theorizes Walker's use of speech as "free direct discourse
This book is concerned with the identification of direct discourse
(DD) in Biblical Hebrew and with the features which introduce or otherwise mark it.
The prevalence of direct discourse
and repetition of key words suggests that the story was meant to be heard.
Despite the clear chronological break between manuscript groups, which does suggest a clear distinction between editions equally established on grounds of contents, the attempt to differentiate them by translation techniques is not wholly successful, since both rely on abbreviatio in the narrative, used notably to simplify structures, combined with amplificatio in direct discourse
and in dramatic incident.
Still, several sentences could be direct discourse
, except that, as in the previous passage, there are no quotation marks.
The subtype entailing fictionalized address is restricted to contexts of direct discourse
For Cohn the interior monologue, as direct discourse
, even if internal direct discourse
, approaches the nonnarrative status of the dramatic monologue.