dipterocarp

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More account would have been welcome of the differential impact of destructive exploitation on the diverse forest communities which dipterocarps dominate, and of the vast silvicultural knowledge which had led to the formulation and successful application of the only demonstrated method to sustain timber production in a biodiverse tropical forest type.
Mathews, Philippine dipterocarp forests (Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1914), quoted in Roth, 'Philippine forests and forestry: 1565-1920', p.
2016, Testing the importance of a common ectomycorrhizal network for dipterocarp seedling growth and survival in tropical forests of Borneo.
Brearley, (2011) reported increase in survival rates of Dipterocarp seedlings when inoculated with ECM fungi, such as Scleroderma, Pisolithus and Tomentella.
Another group found that rice husk charcoal is also effective and convenient to use in inoculation of dipterocarp seedlings.
Mast fruiting in Dipterocarps is assumed to result from a drop of approximately 2 [degrees]C or more in minimum night-time temperature for three or more nights in a row (Ashton et al.
Climatic conditions of an El Nino year trigger simultaneous fruiting in dipterocarps and are essential for regional seed production.
The upper layer of these woody savannahs is dominated by species that share the formation of ectomycorrhiza: species of the genera Brachystegia and Julbernardia (both Leguminosae) in the African miombo, dipterocarps in Indochina, and eucalyptus in Australia.
Unlike temperate oaks (Quercus), some pines (Pinus), and beech (Fagus), dipterocarps are not subjected to conflicting pressures to produce seeds to maintain disperser populations.
The evolution of synchronous masting may have been favored in Malesia because the dominant Dipterocarps initially shared similar reproductive phenologies and lacked the constraint imposed by the need to sustain specialist pollinators and seed dispersers.
But dipterocarps are the main source of Sabah's hardwood timber, as well as two lesser known products: illipe oil, which is squeezed from the nut of some species and used in making chocolate; and damar, a resin used in the production of paint, varnish and linoleum.
In Malaysia, to remove only 3 percent of the trees in a selective harvest of dipterocarps, 48 percent of the remaining trees were destroyed.
The discovery suggests that dipterocarps have existed for much longer than previously thought--even before the split of ancient landmasses over 80 million years ago, when South America and Africa began to drift apart, the group asserts.
Trees found abundant in the area are 'kalingag' and 'duguan,' which are said to have medicinal properties, dipterocarps white 'lauan' and 'bagtikan,' rattan and assorted varieties of fern.
Lardizabal 2015a Understanding local patterns of genetic diversity in dipterocarps using a multi-site, multi-species approach: Implications for forest management and restoration to Forest Ecology and Management.