with morphine for the treatment of postoperative pain.
Then I discuss as a primary example the military's use of dextroamphetamine
as a safe and effective fatigue countermeasure for combat-aviation operations, explaining why our current stance on the use of this medication--and, by inference, other counterfatigue (or performance-enhancing) drugs--does not pose an ethical dilemma for the US military.
For example, in addition to good sleep hygiene, an amphetamine such as dextroamphetamine
or methylphenidate may be prescribed to help sustain daytime wakefulness, along with sodium oxybate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant to treat cataplexy and other symptoms of REM sleep dysregulation (hypnagogic hallucinations).
Central nervous system stimulants These include dextroamphetamine
sulfate (Dexedrine) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin).
Adderall XR[R]([mixed salts of a single-entity amphetamine sulfate] dextroamphetamine
saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, amphetamine sulfate) [package insert].
Although various medications have been assessed for the treatment of ADHD, the psychostimulants (methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine
, mixed amphetamine salts and pemoline) remain the drugs of choice for treating ADHD (Elia, Ambrosini & Rapoport, 1999: 780-788; Goldman et al.
Studies have found that few children (accurately diagnosed) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) become dependent upon stimulants such as Ritalin, dextroamphetamine
, Adderall, etc.
Samples were routinely screened for cocaine, opioids (morphine, heroin, codeine), methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine
, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, marijuana, nicotine, and caffeine using enzyme multiplied immunoassay test (EMIT) and thin layer chromatography.
Investigating officers determined that Kling had valid prescriptions for Adderall and dextroamphetamine
, or Dexedrine, has been around for decades.
Aircrew successfully ground-tested with the Go pill, dextroamphetamine
, carried two, five-mg pills, in clearly labeled plastic bags during all their flights.
There is some evidence that stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine
, is not only critical to effective outcome but may also be more effective than psychosocial interventions, such as school or home behavioral approaches (Abikoff & Hechtman, 1996; Richters et al.
While stimulants such as methylphenadate (Ritalin[TM]) and dextroamphetamine
still remain the most common treatments for attention deficit disorder, new medications such as the recently released atomoxetine (Stratera[TM]) may be effective while avoiding the potentially addictive properties of the stimulants.
Separate mechanisms for behavioral, cardiovascular, and hormonal responses to dextroamphetamine
The American military have just revealed that their pilots in Afghanistan are supplied with dextroamphetamine
- known as a "go-pill" to the American pilots, and speed to the rest of us.