As OIA officials drew lines in the sand in the late nineteenth century, surveying and then selling off reservation lands once protected by treaties, they also surveyed expressive culture, determining which forms were satisfactory for the making of a model American citizenship, and which challenged the OIA agenda of detribalization
Nonetheless, the emphasis in some early African-American literature on physically defined racial identity, as in the Ethiopian Manifesto, reminds us that European and American race theory cast a long shadow over black nationalist texts, since the category of "African" or "Ethiopian" derived not just from detribalization
in the New World but from a series of white texts dating to the early eighteenth century.
We appeal for stronger Southern unity, no retributions, detribalization
and no ethnic, racial and religious hatred.
In 1964, Marshal McLuhan wrote about Russia that it "is still in the main an oral, tribal world that is undergoing detribalization
and just now discovering individualism as a novelty.
Yet when we take these linguistic divisions in the historical, cultural, and geographic contexts of the entire Hemisphere, we must recognize that we are following the tracks of European and Creole nationalist imperialisms, ignoring the massive destruction of Amerindian languages and their related cultures as well as the suppression of non-European languages occasioned by slavery's systematic detribalization
and its customary ban on literacy and other formal education for slaves.