What makes essentialism and cultural determinism
so problematic is blindness to history and complexity.
In my view, determinism
has been proven, if only by the fact that many of us humans are beset with irrational and aberrant brains that cause antisocial behavior that is beyond one's control and doesn't allow for the exercise of free will.
In arguing against determinism
, Balaguer first helpfully refines his definition of free will.
C) Consequently, showing that free agency involves agent-causation does not by itself show that free agency is incompatible with determinism
My own view is that, if we assume that dependent origination is deterministic, then the Buddha's teaching should be characterized as "soft determinism
," the view that determinism
is true, that free will (in the moral-responsibility-entailing sense) is real, and that determinism
does not entail inevitability (because knowledge of volitional causes and effects renders undesirable actions and outcomes avoidable).
He writes in a supercilious tone, full of pronouncements declaring the case for determinism
to be conclusive and declaring free will to be an illusion; but he never gives a clear statement of what precisely he thinks the basis is for accepting determinism
, requiring the reader to piece together statements from various parts of the book to figure out just what Harris's case is.
Indeed, he takes as one of his primary examples of technological determinism
the work of a pivotal scholar in the field, Elizabeth Eisenstein.
Yoder did challenge historical determinism
, and he envisioned and participated in discussions that revealed choices rather than inevitable outcomes.
The Most Real Being: A Biblical And Philosophical Defense Of Divine Determinism
by biblical scholar J.
The studies of Sweden and South Korea are good examples of this analysis as they highlight the significance of party politics and cultural history over pure economic determinism
Generations have accepted the idea of intrinsic qualities and values differentiating men and women and leading to special strengths and weaknesses in each: the authors here argue that biological determinism
is bunk--and chapters draw on years of research to prove it.
I am most troubled by his assumption that there is only "naturalism" or "dualism," and that a "naturalist" must conclude with some form of determinism
, though we can "grasp that determinism
could be true without undermining the naturalist's interpretation of her experience as free.
debate and again found students favoring determinism
as a justification--rationalization?
Our understanding of the Nazis, he writes, is confused because of talk of historical determinism
and 'the German character'.
Girls were to be trained for "feminine" roles, in curricula that emphasized biological determinism
and in a system which privileged clerical schools.