While living with a depressed
mother boosted the mood disorder's prevalence in adopted teens, non-adopted teens with depressed
mothers were even more likely to become depressed
patients will report poor sleep or excessive sleep (insomnia or hypersomnia).
There is some evidence that depressed
individuals tend to attribute their negative life experiences to internal, stable factors (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989)--that, in essence, they believe they are the cause of their own misery, and that they will always be miserable.
Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics both have a significantly lower lifetime risk of ever becoming clinically depressed
than non-Hispanic whites, but they also have higher risks of chronicity once they become depressed
Although this pattern was the same for nondepressed and depressed
women, problems were consistently more common among the latter; the median number of sexual problems six months postpartum was two for depressed
women and one for others.
One factor is genetic, says Koplewicz: "Depression runs in families, which means you're more at risk if your mother, father, or sibling is depressed
Contrary to expectations, bouts of crying did not begin sooner or last longer in the depressed
8% of the patients fit the criteria for depressed
mood at baseline.
Part of the helping profession's difficulty in dealing with depression is that we have never really understood what would cause one person to be depressed
while another in similar circumstances remains symptom-free.
Researchers have found that depressed
patients have twice the odds of sub-optimal outcomes from periodontal treatment over one year compared to patients without depression according to a study in the Journal of Periodontology.
A study of 6,000 workers at three companies, conducted by researchers at Yale University, unearthed the astonishing news that depressed
employees are twice as likely to take time off from work for health reasons as workers who do not define themselves as depressed
, and seven times more likely to be less productive.
Compared with younger adults who present with depressed
mood, however, older depressed
patients are more likely to present with symptoms, such as somatic complaints, irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and anxiety.
individuals scored significantly higher than never-depressed
participants on thought suppression as measured by the White Bear Suppression Inventory.
A hundred depressed
teens and their parents were interviewed before and after treatment for depression.
I was the complete opposite and was so deeply depressed