Theoretical analysis of the processes and material balance of the steel deoxidizers (calcium and aluminium) at all stages of ladle treatment showed that although << excessive >> amount of calcium during casting and crystallization of metal in the mould (weight of the ingot equaled 3.
Crystal-chemical structure of multiphase oxide inclusions is determined by physical-chemical state of the pool, sequence of introduction of the deoxidizers, and interaction of dissolved in the metal elements.
It should be noted that according to valid normative-technical documentation addition of deoxidizers
and modifiers without limitation of their kinds and residual contents is allowed in melting of the 20GL steel for transport machine building.
In addition to carbon, active deoxidizers
are calcium and aluminium, application of which in ESR allows not just deoxidizing the metal, but enables removal of other harmful impurities (sulfur, phosphorus, etc.
Dependences of silicon and manganese melting loss upon content of carbon at the furnace outlet (Figure 2, a) and changes of carbon content in the ladle-furnace (Figure 2, b) showed that the fuller was decarbonization of metal in the ladle-furnace, the lower was melting loss of deoxidizers
Charges consist of 40-60% foundry returns with the balance made up of low carbon iron or 1010 steel, ferroalloys and deoxidizers
Unlike other deoxidizers
such as phosphorus copper, lithium copper allows the foundry to make pure copper castings with close to 100% conductivity (as opposed to the 30% or less conductivity that can result when using other deoxidizers
vary in their ability to reduce FeO, although no deoxidizer
is able to reduce all FeO present in molten steel.