In the gravity-affected vertical position, multiple factors may lead to decreased arterial or venous circulation, such as decreased cardiac output
or loss of auto regulation.
1) However, fluid administration may have adverse effects, including decreased cardiac output
, and interstitial fluid accumulation which may worsen gas exchange, decrease myocardial compliance and limit oxygen diffusion to tissues (2-5).
However, over-diuresis can produce excess volume depletion, which leads to a decreased cardiac output
In the presence of mitral stenosis, previously asymptomatic women can become seriously compromised by the decreased cardiac output
caused by the stenosis and the increased intravascular volume of pregnancy.
Such drugs include non-selective vasodilators (nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside), which are associated with decreased cardiac output
, potential organ ischemia, and other adverse effects.
We conclude that low-dose A VP infusion has similar effects in the normal and septic mammalian circulation: bradycardia, decreased cardiac output
, decreased mesenteric blood flow and conductance and increased urine output and creatinine clearance.