Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the head and neck are thought to be derived from the APUD cell family (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase
system), more specifically the Kulchitsky's cells.
We have identified several genes including ribosomal protein L20 (RpL20; DEG9), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase
(AdoMetDC; DEG7), Cold-acclimation specific protein 30 (CAPs; DEG 32), DNAJ-like protein (DNAJ-LP; DEG41), and Heat shock 22 kDa protein (HSP 22; DEG54) using BLAST (http: //www.
PCR amplification of histidine decarboxylase
Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase
in patients with therapy-resistant epilepsy.
3] Nonstandard abbreviations: IAA, insulin autoantibody; GAD65, glutamic acid decarboxylase
, 65-kDa isoform; IA-2, insulinoma-associated antigen 2; ZnT8, zinc transporter 8; DASP, Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program; NIR-FE, near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced; PEG, polyethyleneglycol; Cy, cyanine.
The production of the 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanoneis carried out by pyruvate decarboxylase
(PDC) and is accompanied with the formation of by-productsi.
Zinc (Zn) acts as a co-factor of glutamic acid decarboxylase
, an enzyme which maintains the production of GABA in central nervous system and decreased level of Zn in CSF has also been observed in febrile seizures.
19] were the first to associate SPS with antibodies against the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase
Autoantibody Autoantigen ICA The ICA autoantigens are not well defined but include a sialoglycoconjugate and glutamic acid decarboxylase
(34) 1AA Insulin (proinsulin antibodies have also been demonstrated) GADA Glutamic acid decarboxylase
(GAD65 > GAD67) 1A-2A A protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) ZnT8A Zinc transporter-8 that transports zinc into insulin secretory granules ICA = lslet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies; IAA = Insulin autoantibodies; GADA = Glutamic acid decarboxylase
autoantibodies; 1A-2A = Insulinoma associated-2 autoantibodies; ZnT8A = Zinc trasnporter-8 autoantibodies Table 1.
It is the direct precursor to serotonin synthesis via the enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
, which requires vitamin B6 as a cofactor.
PanD encodes aspartate decarboxylase
, which is involved in synthesis of the amino acid beta-alanine, a precursor for pantothenate (which is vitamin B5) and co-enzyme A biosynthesis.
6),(9) From these early steps, only the tyrosine/DOPA decarboxylase
(an aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
; TYDC), which converts tyrosine and DOPA to their corresponding amines, and the aminotransferase have been purified and characterized.
One example of these markers is the URA3 gene that encodes orotidine 5-monophosphate decarboxylase
(OMPD Case), an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides (10).
This carboxylase co-enzyme is necessary for oxidative decarboxylase
In this case, the glutamic acid decarboxylase
(GAD) gene was employed because GAD makes a chemical called GABA, a major inhibitory neuro-transmitter in the brain that helps "quiet" excessive neuronal firing related to Parkinson's disease.