The biggest problem of measuring de jure
harmonisation is that the research term measures comparability with legislation and not real approaches companies use.
In the just published The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, Richard Rothstein, Research Associate of the Economic Policy Institute and Fellow of the Haas Institute at the University of California-Berkeley, splendidly documents how de jure
and de facto segregation and discrimination of America's 11% minority Black community - the African Americans - took place beginning from the early last century to the present times:
On the other hand, if Cyprus de facto or/and de jure
, now or later, continues to be controlled by Turkey, not only Cypriot, but also Western and European interests will be in danger.
First, the Federal Reserve, considered to be one of the world's more de jure
independent central banks, played a key causative role in the Great Inflation from 1965 to 1985.
Taylor examines the distinction between de jure
and de facto independence and finds that history shows that de jure
independence is not sufficient for effective economic performance and that a rule-based central bank policy provides the best outcomes.
Maryland, as one of 17 states that had de jure
segregation, has an intense history of school segregation.
Singling out Jordan in Aryan's comment about aid seems like an accusation, which contravened the de jure
of logic and amounts to an unjustified negative attitude towards Jordan which sees Egypt as a sister Arab country and holds its people in respect," he concluded.
Second, others such as Pollard (1993) are less critical but nonetheless advise caution in interpreting the results because much of the literature focuses on de jure
rather than de facto measures of independence; there are differences in the independence ranking of a few central banks, especially the Bank of Japan; and, like Posen (1998), there is a question as to the direction of causation implied by the correlations between central bank independence and inflation.
imperii] and would be open to order the enforcement in the first of the two cases.
We lawyers call it de jure
, as opposed to de facto, as it may have been before 1997.
We lawyers call it de jure
as opposed to de facto, as it may have been before 1997.
The commission ruled, however, that Ryanair could not be forced to sell its stake, since Ryanair did not have de facto or de jure
control of Aer Lingus.
Most of the discussion in empirical studies has used the de jure
regime as compiled by the IMF, i.
In Part II, I explore how the Court has sometimes used de facto segregation as evidence of de jure
discrimination in school districts that had been (but were no longer) segregated by law.
es plausible sostener que aquellos enunciados que establecen una identidad teorica para el caso de las clases naturales constituyen una relacion entre un termino rigido de jure
y un termino rigido de facto?