However, the supposed gap between de jure and de facto segregation
is smaller than it appears.
By the early 1960s, the primary goal of liberal judicial activists had shifted from Brown's emphasis on obliterating state-sponsored racism to Shelley's emphasis on conquering de facto segregation
and private discrimination.
Only when Brown was broadened to include the de facto segregation
that existed in California did the Warren Court's ruling affect this state.
The strength of whiteness was such that de facto segregation
maintained white control well after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 dictated the end of segregation.
One of the arguments often asserted against voluntary efforts to reduce that de facto segregation
is the assertion that 'affirmative action may have been necessary 30 years ago, but the playing field is fairly level today.
Doha's Central Municipal Council is set to vote on barring single men from entering malls on at least one day a week, a move that appears to underline Qatar's de facto segregation
and casts a further shadow over its sincerity about labour reform.
How Texans overcome lingering prejudice and de facto segregation
in the face of this shifting sense of diversity will be the model for the rest of the country.
The Coates article tapped into what appears to be growing sentiment that reparations are due Africans in America not only for enslavement, but the damages done to our people during the era of de jure and de facto segregation
as well as post segregation.
A majority of French Muslims live in sink estates in de facto segregation
neglected by policymakers because it does not fit the assimilationist ideal.
Yet because of the de facto segregation
of America, whites are unlikely to have many black friends: A study from the Public Religion Research Institute suggests that in a network of 100 friends, a white person, on average, has one black friend.
They often encountered racism, and lived a life of de facto segregation
, surviving on razor-thin wages.
Many members of Marshall's target audience were relics of the antebellum, who believed in segregation as the status quo; they prized both de jure segregation and de facto segregation
Hungary's Roma are among the country's most disadvantaged citizens, often living in de facto segregation
on the edge of villages.
Noting that the primary education landscape across the United States is marked by increasing de facto segregation
and that this de facto segregation
has resulted in majority minority schools where "multicultural" curriculums that have been constructed supposedly to empower students (teaching mostly black history and culture in majority black schools, for example) often leaves students with different levels of cultural capital that actually serves to disempower them when they confront the dominant culture, Levinson (Harvard Graduate School of Education) reflects on the issues raised by and possible solutions to this dynamic, deploying normative, analytic, and empirical arguments in her discussion and bringing in her own experience as a former teacher at a majority black school in Atlanta.
This Article argues that the Court has evidenced far more concern about de facto segregation
as an exclusionary and stigmatizing mechanism than many scholars and commentators recognize.