The research offers an unprecedented, real-time glimpse into the intimate world of a single stem cell as it decides when and how to divide, and what its daughter cells
However, the factors that drive daughter cells
to be identical or different remain poorly understood by scientists.
In early stem cell divisions, both daughter cells
matured into specialized skin cells, thereby depleting the supply of skin stem cells.
But how the production of daughter cells
from the different stem cell types is coordinated within a single niche is virtually unknown.
Bioengineers at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science developed a platform to mechanically confine cells, simulating the in vivo three-dimensional environments in which they divide, and found that, upon confinement, cancer cells often split into three or more daughter cells
While the mechanism used by stem cells to recognize the age of their mitochondria remains unknown, forced symmetric apportioning of aged mitochondria resulted in loss of stemness in all of the daughter cells
After analyzing the videotapes, Stewart's team found that daughter cells
aren't as alike as they look.
The researchers point out that two daughter cells
arise from a single sensory organ precursor mother cell in the fly peripheral nervous system, and that among the daughter cells
, Notch is activated in one and not in the other.
Whenever an infected cell divides, the episome makes a copy of itself, and each daughter cell
These complexes are needed to properly unwind chromosomal DNA during cell division so that two new sets of chromosomes - one for each daughter cell
- can be formed from the original set.
When young brain stem cells split in two, they wall off damaged proteins in one daughter cell
, leaving the other spry and ready to divide again, researchers report in the Sept.
The daughter cell
is smaller than the mother, therefore we can recognize which is the daughter cell
after budding (Fig.
But when diatoms divide, they produce one daughter cell
that is slightly smaller than its sister.
As the telomere wears down, its protection erodes too, and so does the risk that the DNA is not faithfully replicated in the daughter cell
, which boosts the risk of cellular malfunction and then disease, including cancer.
During the first meiotic division, cell cleavage is unequal in that one daughter cell
retains most of the cytoplasm (this large cell is now often referred to as the egg), with the other daughter cell
retaining very little (this small cell is referred to as the first polar body and may not undergo the second meiotic division) (Figure 1B).