7) A cybernetic reading of control would have to acknowledge that there is perhaps more to the events surrounding the emergence and development of the science than meets the eye--a point that is suggested by the interesting work by Andrew Pickering on British cyberneticians
and by Eden Medina on the politics of cybernetics in Chile, for example.
use a constructivist epistemology and assume that the system of interest is defined by the observer.
maintain that the working of analogue and digital machines resemble the way that organisms work.
Schwaninger M (1997) Global transdisciplinary research cooperation: 30 cyberneticians
It is typical for second-order cyberneticians
like Maturana (1988a) and yon Glasersfeld (1991) to take a deeper step into biology than most humanists.
The word 'black box' is used by cyberneticians
Medicine competes with a rapidly expanding range of "make over" services including cyberneticians
developing chips for implantation.
Moreover, as economists and business thinkers have always been closet cyberneticians
, we should get out there and expand our subject boundaries to engage cyborg science.
He knows that somewhere over the horizon on the vast ocean of thought, a race of more highly evolved imagineers (physicists, poets, microbiologists, cyberneticians
, genuine historians) sail to and fro in vessels of inconceivable power and speed.
In "Cybernetics and Purpose: A Critique," he shows the error in the efforts--of cyberneticians
and behaviorists--to explain away the apparent goal-directed behavior of animals in terms of mechanical inputs and outputs and self-regulating feedback mechanisms.
For the cyberneticians
, intention really was nothing other than the input/output relations.