They can contain a variety of other features such as cupules
, astronomical bodies and other enigmatic signs not always fully understood today.
Female flowers and cupules
of Balanopaceae, an enigmatic rosid family.
For example, rows of cupules
found in the caves of Malakula, Maewo and Erromango are among the most dominant motif arrangements in the engraved rock-art.
Well known PNG mainland examples include the petroglyphs in the Sogeri area of Central Province, which include deep pits with central incisions, cupules
, concentric motifs, rayed stars and anthropomorphs, and the geometric designs and scrolls found on boulders in Goodenough Bay (Rosenfeld 1988: 128, 130).
in Fagopsis were membranous, hairy wedges about 4-6 mm long.
At Klipbak I the upper and front face of the gong exhibits a series of 11 banded and connected circular motifs, 7 ground cupules
, and numerous surfaces bearing concentrations of percussion marks (Figure 6).
Recently, several hundred pecked and abraded cupules
were discovered in one of the caves at Padah-lin, the first such ancient stoneworking to be documented in mainland Southeast Asia (Tacon et al.
The rock platform is incised with a pair of macropod tracks, three bird tracks, a radiating form, linear designs and 43 pits or cupules
The tradition of cupules
(cupmarks), one of the first and most durable forms of rock art, originates in this period: in the rock shelter of La Ferrassie (Dordogne), a well-dated block, decorated with a score of cupules
, was associated with a burial.
The engravings are limited in their enigmatic repertoire: most often quite deep cup-marks resembling the cupules
found in so many rock-art regions; circles, singular or concentric; lines, straight, curved or wavy; and then more elaborate figures which combine these primary elements in varied ways.
Carbonized remains from the site core have also yielded some of the earliest securely dated maize cupules
and textile-impressed plaster fragments, probably produced from cotton, in the Maya lowlands (Lawlor et al.
At Jinmium are old rock-engravings, the pecked cups or cupules
that are widespread in Australia.
She also suggests that cupules
and other designs may have resulted from increase ceremonies.
About 50 m from the main outcrop and sandstone stacks, it has numerous cup-shaped pits or cupules
, some extending below ground level [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4B OMITTED], several paintings, and a floor area of 24 sq.
Where themes are concerned, one already knew that sexual representations, especially vulvas, were numerous at this time, in particular in the rock-shelters of the Perigord, as well as cupules
and simple geometric signs, dots or small rods; that humans were rarely depicted; and that the subject of the composite being, half-man, half-animal, already existed (man with feline head from Hohlenstein-Stadel; [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED]); here and there the unusual nature of the bestiary had been noticed.