We analyzed serum trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane levels measured in third-trimester serum from the mothers of 217 sons with cryptorchidism
, 197 sons with hypospadias, and 557 sons with neither condition.
Most studies on cryptorchidism
and hypospadias had limited statistical power or focused only on p,p'-DDE (Brucker-Davis et al.
is characterized by the failure of descent of one or both testes into the scrotum during fetal development.
The patient did not report any trauma, and had no history of cryptorchidism
Effects of cryptorchidism
on spermatological properties.
Prepubertal orchiopexy for cryptorchidism
may be associated with lower risk of testicular cancer.
The three major malformations in the adalimumab-exposed group were one ventricular septal defect, one unilateral cryptorchidism
, and one case of microcephaly.
C) the least common form, or female type, is characterized by bilateral cryptorchidism
with testis embedded in the broad ligaments in an ovarian position with respect to the uterus, which is fixed in the pelvis (7).
Atypical germ cells, some of which may simulate IGCNU, can be seen in the testes of patients with cryptorchidism
, hypofertility or infertility, sex development disorders, and, sometimes, in the background testis of pediatric TGCTs.
Miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, and poor reproductive outcome were more common among the daughters of exposed women, whereas hypospadias, cryptorchidism
, and testicular hypoplasia were reported in their sons (Mittendorf, 1995; Newbold et al.
The condition, also known as cryptorchidism
, affects around one in 20 boys in the UK.
The condition, known as cryptorchidism
, hits around one in 20 boys in the UK.
Other studies report a greater incidence of cryptorchidism
(undescended testicles) and hypospadias (failure of the urinary outlet to fuse completely) in male offspring of women with levels of DDT above a certain median.
Our patient was a 2-year-old boy with a history of multiple congenital anomalies, including microcephaly, micrognathia, sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, a single functioning kidney, cryptorchidism
, and bilateral preauricular tags, pits, and cupped ear deformity.
Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism
, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress.