The presence of sodium citrate helped decreasing water required for mixing thereby decreasing the porosity of the samples and increasing their cold crushing strength
Overall, the compression strength data contrast favorably with the 29,300 kPa (4,250 psi) parallel-to-grain maximum crushing strength
at 12 percent EMC for solid aspen published in the Wood Handbook (USDA 1999).
Wood has medium bending and crushing strength
, row stiffness and is well suited for steam bending.
Other wood properties include: straight grain, medium to fine texture, resistance to shock loads, low stiffness, medium crushing strength
with medium steam-bending classification, and small tendency to split when nailed.
The editors of the Encyclopedia of Wood describe utile as a "dense wood, with high crushing strength
and medium bending strength, low stiffness and shock resistance, and a very poor steam-bending rating.
It has a very good steam bending rating, medium bending and crushing strength
, medium shock resistance and low stiffness ratings.
Wood has medium density with good bending and crushing strengths
and a good steam bending classification.
Wood has high bending and crushing strengths
, high stiffness, medium resistance to shock loads.
Wood has medium density, good bending and crushing strengths