The crown gall problem casts a dark shadow over vineyards
Therefore, vine growers in Virginia, as well as in the other northern temperate climates, including Nagano and other northern prefectures in Japan, have been suffering from damage from crown gall on grapevines.
vitis strains ARK-1, ARK-2, ARK-3, and VAR03-1 were selected as biological control agents against grapevine crown gall.
ARK-1 is a promising new agent to control grapevine crown gall.
4) and was not an antagonist for grapevine crown gall.
From 2009 to 2013, nine field trials designed as randomized or systematic controlled trials of biological control for grapevine crown gall were carried out at three different experimental fields (A to C) in Okayama, Japan.
18 indicated that the incidence of crown gall disease during treatment with ARK-1 was decreased to 18% of that without ARK-1, demonstrating that the control effect was very high in the fields.
Meta-analysis of the seven field trials showed strong evidence that ARK-1 was effective in controlling grapevine crown gall by application in the field.
Crown gall tumors can be maintained as undifferentiated masses of tumor cells in tissue cultures without the infecting bacteria and added hormones required for cell culture of normal tissues.
The T-DNA oncogenes produce uncontrolled proliferation of crown gall cells via the production of auxins and cytokinins for the dividing plant cells and specific opines that are secreted as an energy source for the attached bacterium, but mainly for the surrounding aggregation of A.
A list of the approximate dates of key discoveries in the historical record of crown gall disease since about 1900 is shown in Table I.
Smith and Townsend (1907) were among the earlier major investigators of crown gall disease (Braun, 1954, 1982).
Nucleic acid hybridization studies to determine the genetic involvement in crown gall tumors and the nature of TIP were made, but no concrete evidence of bacterial DNA sequences in sterile crown gall tissue was found (Butcher, 1977).
Whereas the initial phase of knowledge about crown gall tumors was concerned with the general external description and cell culture without exogenous hormones, the second major phase, in the 1970s and into the 1980s, described a unique process in which a DNA component of a bacterial plasmid was transferred into the nucleus of an eukaryote organism to produce the hormones for plant-cell growth and opines for bacterial consumption.
Experimental evidence of the essential role of T-DNA in the transformation process in crown gall disease was published in 1980 by several scientific groups (Braun, 1982; Yadav et al.