Such conditions as crenation
in frontal femoral cortex, osteoporosis, revision arthroplasty, arthrofibrosis, total hip prosthesis on the same side are risk factors [5, 16, 46].
High osmolality of water soluble contrast media (CM) has been shown to be responsible for significant hemodynamic, cardiac, and subjective effects including vasodilatation, heat, pain , and a variety of rheological effects such as red blood cell crenation
 and renal osmotic diuresis [1, 6].
Discuss causes, signs and symptoms, prevention, and treatment for following complications: Hypotension, disequilibrium, hypertension, fever/pyrogenic reactions, angina, muscle cramps, rising venous pressures, shortness of breath, transfusion reaction, seizures, clotted dialyzer, blood leaks, arterial pressures, changing blood lines, arterial blood flow interruption, air embolus, cardiac arrest, anaphylactic reactions, hemolysis, arrhythmias, back pain, blood loss, crenation