The Latin word for cow is vacca, so cowpox
Because the French term for cowpox
is vaccine, Pasteur called this process of inoculating with an artificially attenuated pathogen vaccination, explaining that "I have given to the term vaccination an extension which science, I hope, will adopt as an homage to the merits and the immense services rendered by .
The first vaccine for it was discovered by British physician Edward Jenner who discovered the effectiveness of cowpox
to protect humans from smallpox in 1796, but the British government didn't introduce compulsory smallpox vaccination until 1853, when it was made an Act of Parliament.
Vaccination, the introduction into the body of an attenuated or killed form (or particle or toxin) of a disease-causing organism to elicit immunity against the disease, has arguably saved more lives globally than any other medical intervention since Edward Jenner conducted the world's first recorded medical trial using cowpox
to immunise against smallpox in 1796, and reported his findings to the Royal Society in 1798.
virus was useful because it enabled smallpox virus to be tackled.
to Jenner ("That's funny; when I injected this pus from an infected milkmaid with cowpox
into this eight-year-old boy, he didn't get smallpox like everyone else in the village.
Included are the tales of Edward Jenner, the first person to inoculate people with cowpox
to fight smallpox; Louis Pasteur, the physician who first developed a vaccine from a human virus; and others.
Nearly 100 pages in three chapters are devoted to the ancient history of smallpox vaccinations, then Jenner's improvement in using cowpox
, then later efforts to improve the vaccine.
Well, I know this milkmaid, Sarah Nelmes, lovely girl, got cowpox
though, and I'm going to get a bit of the nasty stuff from her pocks and deliberately infect a little lad called James Phipps.
Orthopox viruses are antigenetically closely related vertebrate viruses, including variola major virus (VAR), (1) monkeypox virus (MPV), camelpox virus (CML), vaccinia virus (VAC), cowpox
virus (CPV), and six other species not pathogenic for humans.
virus was used in inoculations in 1796 by Edward Jenner.
Jenner's breakthrough occurred in 1796, when he observed that dairy-maids exposed to cowpox
, a disease of cows that causes only mild blistering in humans, rarely contracted smallpox.
Inoculation, unlike the epoch-making vaccination developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 from the far less lethal cowpox
virus, was a controversial and unpopular defense against smallpox in America.
There was a time when most schoolchildren knew that in 1770 Edward Jenner, a physician in rural England, observed that milkmaids who contracted cowpox
virus on their hands were immune to the far more dangerous smallpox.
But the vaccines were made using the benign cowpox
virus, and surely we can keep that for our defence.