The Kalman filter algorithm for estimating states and their error covariances
can be written as follows.
Results indicated invariance of CUs, factor loadings, item intercepts, and factor variances and covariances
It is important to recall that these are not covariances
across levels of income sources, but rather the covariance
of income volatilities.
Spatial statistics and spatio-temporal data; covariance
functions and directional properties.
In terms of additive direct (AD) and additive maternal (AM) genetic variances and covariances
, matrix [V.
It is also the covariances
between the latter three terms that enter into this determination and these could be quite influential in periods of external or financial turmoil and in crises in particular.
The input of the observed size distributions enables us to check the validity of the model, by comparison of the measured and calculated covariances
We first use the consumption-based asset pricing framework and then present a less structured empirical analysis that relates bond risk premiums to changing covariances
of bonds with stocks.
One of the most important properties of covariance
is the fact that according to its formula, the covariance
of two independent time series is zero.
By using the conventional approach, aggregate productivity can be decomposed into the average productivity of industry and the allocative efficiency component, which is often measured by the covariance
between market share of individual firms in a given industry and their productivity (Olley and Pakes 1996).
The elements of the MSEM contain the covariances
for the model predictions, plus the squared bias.
He covers the fundamental covariance
structure, including state and innovation covariances
, recursions for L and L-1, forward recursions, smoothing, initialization, normal priors and a general state-space model.
Extended tables of means, variances, and covariances
of all order statistics for sample sizes up to 30 have been provided by Balakrishnan and Chan  and Balakrishnan and Chan .
I find that the CAPM fails to explain the predictability of stock market returns because covariances
with the forecasting variables are also important determinants of stock market returns.
The importance of these factors in explaining the fall in the standard deviations and covariances
of growth in the G-7 is unresolved.