Although this book is overwhelmingly about Berlinghieri and Florence, their relationship with their intellectual past and diplomatic connections to the present Ottoman court, much that Roberts writes holds true for the geographies and cosmographies
which were produced in the following century, both in Italy and north of the Alps.
Certainly, Pardo's interest in layered effects can be seen in some of his earlier projects, which belie any suspicion that his use of them at LACMA was primarily inspired by pre-Columbian cosmographies
Second, the survival of mirabilia in cosmographies
and in world maps attests to a rich and deeply rooted spatial imagination.
As such, they resembled other omphalos- (or navel) centered cosmographies
, such as ancient Greek and Chinese.
But important atlases and cosmographies
were on sale at Sotherby's earlier in the week and some of them were completely magnificent, bearing witness to the changing shape of the world and the charting of the oceans during the Renaissance and the centuries which followed.
Even more confused is her extended discussion of various eight-, nine-, and ten-sphere cosmographies
in Arabic and Latin, in which she fails to take into consideration the conflicts over the precession of the equinoxes and the notorious "trepidation" theory which lie behind these variants.
What came from beyond known borders, from new hemispheres fathomed from cosmographies
, or within the landscapes of everyday life comprised a scientific object.