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However, some undesirable changes also are seen, such as those that occur in renin substrate, cortisol-binding globulin, and thyroid-binding globulin," Dr Liu commented.
In contrast to what is seen with the gel preparation, oral administration of estrogen may be associated with excess serum levels of estrone; increased levels of renin substrate, sex-hormone-binding globulin, cortisol-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, and growth hormone; alternations in coagulation factors; and changes in lipid profile.
In contrast, no corresponding large difference in the cortisol values was observed between the EELEV and EEDES women, confirming the results from previous studies, in which different kinds of gestagens were found to have similar effects on the liver synthesis of cortisol-binding globulin, which seems to be stimulated by the oral EE therapy (24-26).
That's because pregnancy is a state featuring high levels of cortisol-binding globulins, which invalidates the other tests.