In this study, nursing staff of 30 to 39 years old more coped with stress than the younger or older ages, as did the nurses with 5-9 years experience of working than those with less job experience.
Those officially (permanent) employed more positively coped with stress.
Conversely, more Australian referees (35%) than Americans (23%) coped by keeping calm and by answering politely (29% versus 5%, respectively).
In addition, more Australians (61%) than Americans (43%) coped by expressing anger.
The purpose of this study was to describe the manner in which skilled athletes interpreted and coped
with various sources of acute stress experienced during sport competition.
For example, Gould, Finch, and Jackson (1993b) found that a champion figure skater coped
with pre-competition stress by ingesting whisky, a strategy that may have reduced her stress, but likely had deleterious effects on her health.