In addition to contrastiveness
, the enclitic -mm may express different kinds of referentiality.
Considerations regarding mental activation state, contrastiveness
and information packaging play an important role in accounting for differential expression strategies that convey a single semantic structure.
of the dispositions featured in the PosB pictures leads Yucatec speakers to drastically increase the frequency at which they encode dispositional information with respect to the non-contrastive BowPed stimuli, whereas the effect of the difference between the two tasks is much smaller among Tzeltal speakers, as the latter already encode dispositional information with high frequency in response to the BowPed items.
Note, however, that contrastiveness
in this sense is a general requirement irrespective of whether the focus is due to, for example, a wh-question or adverb like only, and must not be confused with the notion of contrast related to the conjunction but.
Roughly speaking, the reason is as follows: contrastiveness
is typically characterized as the explicit rejection of alternative informational units from some closed set of alternatives (cf.
or exhaustive identification) and signaled by heavy pitch prominence (cf.
The fact that contrastiveness
plays a role in topic-marking can also be shown with Romanian data.