Paul with a working prototype of the zero contact transmission
Preventing droplet and contact transmission
would require very different control measures.
occurs through touch and may be either direct or indirect in its presentation.
Although the reservoir is unknown and several animals have been linked to contact transmission
, (15-18) person-to-person transmission is thought to be rare.
Indirect Contact Indirect contact transmission
involves contact of a susceptible host with a contaminated intermediate object, usually inanimate, such as contaminated instruments, hands or gloves.
Infection caused by contact transmission
is usually benign and is self-limited.
3) Direct contact transmission
involves body-surface-to-body-surface contact and the physical transfer of microorganisms from an infected or colonized person to a susceptible host.
is the most important route by which pathogens are transmitted in health care settings, including hemodialysis units.
For direct contact transmission
experiments, we housed 3 ferrets per group in regular ferret cages and 3 cats per group in large dog transporter cages (online Technical Appendix Figure 1), and infected them intranasally with 106 PFU (500 pL) of viruses.
The groups with the highest percentage of persons with no previous negative HIV test included those aged [greater than or equal to] 50 years (4,492 [59%]), males in the heterosexual contact ([paragraph]) (3,476 [56%]) or IDU (1,674 [54%]) transmission categories, blacks/African Americans (13,188 [44%]), and females in the heterosexual contact transmission
category (5,451 [44%]) (Table 2).
, the most important and most frequent cause of nosocomial infections, is divided into direct-contact transmission
and indirect-contact transmission
We inoculated 16 ducklings with WFBV, housed 1 sham-inoculated duckling with the inoculated ducklings to act as a contact transmission
control, and housed 5 sham-inoculated ducklings together in a separate room as controls.
On March 1, 2010, the Washington State Department of Health (WADOH) notified Public Health--Seattle & King County (PHSKC) of a suspected case of contact transmission
of vaccinia virus from sexual contact with a member of the military who had been vaccinated against smallpox.
In addition, none of the infected alpacas had a noticeable nasal discharge, which is distinctly different from what has been observed in camels and might explain the relatively low efficiency of contact transmission
we observed with alpacas.
Investigators found no evidence of contact transmission
and, based on the results of molecular typing, further concluded that the patient had been exposed to a VACV strain that had contaminated the seed stock from the laboratory where the patient worked.