The fact that Dolgan, as a known contact language
of Nganasan, shows a similar distribution of the copula in present and past tense context which differs from Selkup is indeed intriguing.
AKM: Our research (Mohanty, 1994a, 1994b) with Kondh children (6- to 16-year-olds) clearly shows that those who are able to maintain their mother tongue language (Kui) along with bilingualism in the dominant contact language
(Oriya) perform better [academically] than the monolingual (Oriya only) Kondh children.
With the help of an informant fluent in the language and in a contact language
- Tok Pisin in my case - the researcher will set out to painstakingly write down the text, word for word, as dictated by the assistant.
First, the circumstances of language contact in Late Bronze Age Canaan do not really fit the typical parameters for mixed-language genesis very well, and to the extent that they may fit, the kind of mixed Canaano-Akkadian language ostensibly represented in writing is not the kind of contact language
that is likely to have emerged under those circumstances.
For example, could it be explained by the fact that the support of the contact language
disappeared; the leap was too long; rather, the synchronic variation of both the modal and the future meanings of the verb was interpreted as the original modal meaning (Kilgi 2010 : 179); they did not become common enough in texts; there were some other future auxiliaries (such as the Estonian hakkama begin and the Finnish Finnish tulla come).
If we take conformity this structure to have been a requirement for a European personal pronoun to become established in a contact language
, then the English and French pronouns that would fail are it, us; il(s), elle(s).
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The problem with these explanations is that there is no precise method to assess whether a substrate influence that is linguistically possible, could actually have initiated the corresponding change in the contact language
(see Laakso 1999).
Updated to include the most recent research and policies, this covers the concerns of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, including recruitment, policy, selection and credentials, public relations, evaluation, collective bargaining, data analysis, budgeting, investigations, planning and problem solving, grievance processing and arbitration as well as the text of the standards and selected contact language
In addition to the traditional contact languages
pidgins, creoles, and mixed languages, linguists here examine two new forms: multi-ethnolects and written language intertwining.
21-64), discusses the theories "which evolved from the study of the genesis of Pacific contact languages
or those which have been used to support the arguments of Oceanic linguists" (p.