I take the official oath today with no mental reservations, and with no purpose to construe the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical rules.
It is seventy-two years since the first inauguration of a President under our national Constitution.
I hold that, in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution, the Union of these States is perpetual.
And, finally, in 1787 one of the declared objects for ordaining and establishing the Constitution was "TO FORM A MORE PERFECT UNION.
This latter conception is the principle on which the mixed constitution is based.
Aristotle's mixed constitution springs from a recognition of sectional interests in the state.
We can appreciate Aristotle's critical analysis of constitutions, but find it hard to take seriously his advice to the legislator.
Aristotle is content to call existing constitutions perversions of the true form.
For nothing can be more evident, to those who are able to take an enlarged view of the subject, than the alternative of an adoption of the new Constitution or a dismemberment of the Union.
The same idea, tracing the arguments to their consequences, is held out in several of the late publications against the new Constitution.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;--between Citizens of different States; --between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
It is a matter both of wonder and regret, that those who raise so many objections against the new Constitution
should never call to mind the defects of that which is to be exchanged for it.