For example, a typical second-order schedule would consist of a 60-minute fixed interval schedule with a 30:S (FI60min-FR30:S) response pattern, where the conditioned stimulus
is presented after each 30 responses, while the animal must perform a further 30 responses after completion of the fixed interval of 60 minutes before the conditioned stimulus
is served alongside the reinforcer, for example, an intravenous infusion of heroin or cocaine, or access to food, depending on the aims of the study (Everitt & Robbins, 2000; Giuliano et al.
After an appropriate period of temporal-contextual familiarity, the time of day had a different influence on taste aversion depending on the circadian physiological phase in which the conditioned stimulus
After acquiring the association of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the conditioned stimulus
is gradually capable of inducing a conditioned response, such as fear-related behaviors (freezing, being startled), and the associated physiological, biological and neuroendocrine changes.
Thus, they offered the conditioned stimulus
, fully aware that it would provoke a conditioned response.
For unconditioned, aversive, fearful stimuli, when expectancy of the unconditioned fearful stimulus increases by pairing it with a conditioned stimulus
, UCR diminution is detected in the amygdala and the anterior cingulate, auditory and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, with an inverse relationship between unconditioned stimulus expectation and unconditioned response.
Previous studies have implicated a brain structure called the amygdala in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, this occurring when a stimulus (the conditioned stimulus
, CS) becomes associated with an aversive object or event (the unconditioned stimulus, UCS).
This debate is especially vivid in the domain of Pavlovian conditioning, when the association between an Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and a Conditioned Stimulus
(CS) formed by several stimuli, is compared to the association acquired by each of its components.
After several such pairings, the presence of the conditioned stimulus
alone comes to elicit the reflex response, now called the conditioned response.
The initial neutral stimulus is called the Conditioned Stimulus
(CS) and the biologically significant stimulus (sadness) is called the Unconditioned Stimulus (US).
Among the topics are drug-induced suppression of conditioned stimulus
intake, mechanisms of overshadowing and potentiation in flavor aversion conditioning, the role of estradiol in the hormonal modulation of conditioned taste avoidance, and the chemical aversion treatment of alcoholism.
The behavior always occurs immediately upon presentation of the conditioned stimulus
Examples of cases where the context acquires conditioned stimulus
properties have been systematically demonstrated in research on latent inhibition, extinction, reinstatement and renewal (see Bouton, 1994; Gray, Williams, Fernandez, Ruddle, Good, & Snowden, 2001; Bursch, Hemsley & Joseph, 2004; Nelson & Sanjuan, 2006).
Identified neurons in the pathway of a conditioned stimulus
(CS) have been studied in detail using biochemical, biophysical, and molecular techniques.
control for observing and choosing books).
We assumed further that the receiver's physiological process can be used as a conditioned stimulus
in the paradigm of classical conditioning.