Harvey, a teacher and staff developer, and Goudvis, a classroom teacher, staff developer, and adjunct professor, describe comprehension
strategies that teach K-8 students to become engaged, thoughtful, and independent readers.
Sec is inspired by the PISA and PIRLS international reading comprehension tests (OECD, 2013), and distinguishes between reading as a leisure activity, an activity for the acquisition of models, and an activity to find relevant information in the informational noise of the current world.
For example, McVay & Kane (2012) measured reading comprehension using different tasks (e.
According to Adams (1990), reading comprehension is a multifaceted process, and for students to adequately comprehend text, they will need an awareness of print, which can be obtained through multiple channels to facilitate word recognition (Boulware-Gooden, Carreker, Thornhill, and Malatesha Joshi, 2007).
Some teachers may assume that reading comprehension will develop naturally without any direct teaching of comprehension (Denton & Fletcher, 2003).
The Simple View of Reading model highlights listening comprehension, in addition to decoding, as a main contribution to explain variation in reading comprehension (Hoover & Gough, 1990).
Listening comprehension tests focused on texts' comprehension are more frequently included in informal reading batteries or inventories (e.
Difficulties with decoding or listening comprehension can lead to different types of reading problems: (1) children who have difficulties only with written language, due to decoding problems, but have no difficulties in comprehending the spoken language; (2) children who, despite good decoding performance, have problems with reading comprehension; and (3) children who simultaneously have a decoding problem and difficulties in comprehension of spoken language (Aarnoutse, Brand-Gruwel, & Oduber, 1997; Hulme & Snowling, 2011; Nation, 2005).
The relationship between reading comprehension, listening comprehension and decoding changes over the stages of reading acquisition: in the early ph ases, decoding proficiency explains a great part of the variance in reading comprehension.
Another common belief concerning reading is the simple view that decoding and listening comprehension
proficiency will lead to reading comprehension
(Hoover & Gough, 1990).
To do so, in addition to decoding processes, it is necessary to activate a set of reading comprehension
strategies that facilitate the representational construction of a text.
Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out the effect of metacognitive strategies training or instruction on the reading comprehension
of students in the EFL context of Iran.
is the active process of constructing meaning from text.
Specifically, confusion existed amongst teachers about where teaching comprehension
was positioned as an instructional strategy within the teaching of content area curriculum, and its place as part of the curriculum or academic discipline in middle years classrooms.
This study investigated the challenges faced by 500 2nd secondary students in their EFL reading comprehension
in Amman 2nd directorate of education.