where "treat" and "comp" denote the treatment and comparison groups
Overall, CRF patients had a lower SBA GMT than all healthy comparison groups
It was impractical due to a small comparison group
to create five strata using propensity scores; thus, propensity scores were used as covariates in these analyses.
6% of those in the peripheral and comparison groups
, respectively (see Table 4).
For the comparison group
there was only a single point of follow-up.
The major limitation of above-mentioned studies were that there were no age-matched normal subjects served as the comparison group
Because only two therapists delivered the home-based family therapy intervention, families were offered participation in the intervention group only if an intervention group counselor had an available opening; otherwise, they were offered participation in the comparison group
, which received services as usual.
Although few differences were found between the intervention and comparison groups
for the eight MHSOs, it is possible that unobserved differences in their beneficiary mix may affect their likelihood of achieving the pilot's required savings targets.
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) assessments were used to measure the reading skills of 224 treatment and 476 comparison group
first-grade students, with control group students receiving traditional reading instruction for 90 minutes per day in a core reading program and treatment group students receiving instruction using the supplementary reading program for 30 additional minutes per day.
These 110 were then randomly divided into two groups--a treatment group of 60 and a comparison group
Students from both treatment and comparison groups
, however, were, on average, at or near the benchmark expectations.
Significant differences were found between the research and comparison groups
in terms of dominant types of feelings toward parents.
The chi-square test was used to assess the significance of differences between the study and comparison groups
, and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to test for differences within the groups.
In their review of school counseling outcome research from 1988 to 1995, Whiston and Sexton (1998) found that of the 50 published studies they located, most provided only descriptive data, used convenience samples, lacked control or comparison groups
, used outcome measures of questionable reliability and validity, and did not monitor adherence to intervention protocol.
Significant gains in critical thinking were detected within both the treatment and comparison groups