From Table 3, we see that in Experiments 3 and 6, seven out of the eight subjects are tacit colluders in the first round.
Even if the colluders bid only on their own items, they do not always start bidding at the reservation price: some bidders start out at a bid of 500 francs on their own items.
We pick 60 seconds arbitrarily: any change from 30 to 100 sec will not make any difference in our definition of tacit colluders.
A subject is defined as a tacit colluder only if he only bids on items that satisfy one of the following three criteria:
The tacit colluder bids on another subject's item if and only if either (1) the item has not been bid on at all for a long time, or (2) the item belongs to a non-collusive subject who has bid on another bidder's item.
Fingerprinting can be carefully designed in codeword form, named coded fingerprinting  , which can detect the colluders
partially or completely.
It seems an impossible situation to uphold a faith when its spiritual leaders are exposed as guilty colluders in horrific crimes against innocents.
But these sins have a habit of rearing their ugly heads eventually and the fact the Church has attempted to smooth over the cracks has made its believers look like colluders.
If such collusion were to harm consumers, the colluders
would then have an incentive to cheat on their agreements, and newcomers would have an incentive to enter markets in which collusion was raising prices.
ALTHOUGH the bonus fund was pocketed last week by both Elite Racing and Harry Findlay's group of colluders
, the Tote Scoop6 win fund was not collected and rolls over to this afternoon.
These attacks are performed by a group of colluders
with the same digital data containing different fingerprints.
Amrac wins 'collusion' counterclaim Colluders
face threat of criminal prosecution.
Thus, even if all colluders
at a single site quote identical prices to every customer because no other way to divide the local market has been found, they will retain market boundaries with neighboring cartel members.