Recall that a subject is classified as a tacit colluder if he only bids on items that satisfy one of the following three criteria:
Every subject is denoted as 0 if he is a colluder in a given round and is denoted as 1 otherwise.
The most striking feature of the table is that the evolution of bidding behavior moves in only one direction: once a subject becomes a tacit colluder, he almost always remains a tacit colluder.
For example, when two non-collusive bidders i and j share the highest two valuations on two items and if i bids on both items beforej does, thenj is classified as a colluder as long as he only bids on these two items.
Even if price agreements are made and enforced, colluders
can "cheat" by competing on the basis of quality, delivery or service, warranties, or other add-ons.
The cooperative efforts of colluders
can create the impression that controls are being followed.
It is not a pretty picture, and there are plenty of villains, colluders
, and bystanders to go around.
It seems an impossible situation to uphold a faith when its spiritual leaders are exposed as guilty colluders in horrific crimes against innocents.
But these sins have a habit of rearing their ugly heads eventually and the fact the Church has attempted to smooth over the cracks has made its believers look like colluders.
If such collusion were to harm consumers, the colluders
would then have an incentive to cheat on their agreements, and newcomers would have an incentive to enter markets in which collusion was raising prices.
ALTHOUGH the bonus fund was pocketed last week by both Elite Racing and Harry Findlay's group of colluders
, the Tote Scoop6 win fund was not collected and rolls over to this afternoon.
The pair believe the presence of sophisticated embedded ACC technology in digital resources, with its ability to unmask colluders
, will be such a powerful deterrent that it actually will prevent these kinds of piracy attempts.
These attacks are performed by a group of colluders
with the same digital data containing different fingerprints.
Amrac wins 'collusion' counterclaim Colluders
face threat of criminal prosecution.
Thus, even if all colluders
at a single site quote identical prices to every customer because no other way to divide the local market has been found, they will retain market boundaries with neighboring cartel members.