was both an economic and a human rights disaster.
Practically the collectivization
meant the confiscation of the majority of private agricultural properties, these becoming good of people.
It is believed that this determined resistance of Ukrainians to Moscow's domination was partially responsible for Stalin resorting to especially harsh measures against the peasantry during the collectivization
drive in Ukraine, so as to once and for all break their opposition to the increasingly brutal Communist dictatorship.
On the basis of a vast documentation --published and unpublished documents--the authors present the process of collectivization
in the context of the era, revealing the levers, legal means and repressive instruments used by Communist authorities in the preparation and conduct of this sad episode in the history of contemporary Romanian.
Specifically, we should assign collectivization
duties to individuals.
Local courts, leniently condemning samosud, encouraged it and somewhat protected the peasant ruling of the countryside, which the forced collectivization
of agriculture definitely ruined.
If we should talk about nationalization, we shall reach collectivization
, then GULAG, then Belene," the Finance Minister declared, specifying that he did not have in mind the Belene nuclear power plant project "about which Stanishev is now dreaming" but the Belene labor camp which was part of the network of forced labor camps in Communist Bulgaria.
If defendants can avoid liability through pre-damages manipulations, one should look for ways to rectify this externality and improve existing collectivization
2) The collectivization
of risk encourages bad risk-taking.
In the initial conversations Andrzej Kaczorowski, Franciszek Gryciuk, Antoni Kura, and Mateusz Szpytma reflect on different visions of Peoples' Poland by the PSL and PPR (the name the communist party bore in the 1940s) in the area of land reform, forced collectivization
, disintegration of Stalin's economic and political system, the role of women who opposed collectivization
of farms (which never succeeded in Poland), the function of activites of representatives of the Polish farmers' movement abroad, and the communists' efforts to divide and dysfunctionalize the Polish emigre milieu.
In both collectivization
and the Final Solution, mass sacrifice was needed to protect a leader from the unthinkability of error" (p.
This mass culling was directly caused by Josef Stalin's collectivization
policies, which were comprised of seizing private farms and exporting whatever food was grown to the rest of the Soviet Union and beyond.
Flynn has arranged two dozen essays according to chronology and theme, beginning with an argument against collectivization
and concluding with the titular "Time and Eternity.
Stalin pursued collectivization
despite the massive resistance that had followed when Soviet authorities first tried to introduce the policy the previous spring.
There is an interesting set of first-hand accounts of the resistance to collectivization
in the region uniquely balanced with two archival accounts from the Russian officials in charge of these operations.