According to the Hofstede (2010) framework, Turkey is a collectivistic
culture (with an individualism score of 37) which means individuals define their self-image in terms of 'we' rather than 'I'.
Social complexity also shares the same beliefs in the interdependent nature of the world, thus matching the vertical patterns of inter-relationship characterizing hierarchy, which can be either individualistic or collectivistic
Confucian teachings are regarded as the basis for collectivism, and Chinese societies have often been perceived as prototypical collectivistic
cultures due to their emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony.
culturally responsive therapeutic interventions.
However, the culture of restraint prevalent in collectivistic
societies may prevent open discussions of personal concerns, particularly the feelings of shame associated with revealing family conflicts to outsiders (Duan & Wang, 2000).
Kim & Han, 2008) and the collectivistic
nature of the culture in which competition produces relative deprivation among students (e.
If Erica's mother's family of origin in Japan was very traditionally collectivistic
, she may have experienced a difficult cultural shift when she moved to the United States, which tends to value more individualistic self-presentation.
These results are in line with those of Davis and Ruhe (2003); Halkos and Tzeremes (2011) and Tong (2014), who also highlighted the main role of the collectivistic
society and social network in fostering corrupt acts.
Although his collectivistic
culture of origin would insist on his maintaining geographical closeness with the group, prioritizing his family's collective needs, his individualistic host culture would encourage his pursuit of a career.
A more context-sensitive approach of cognitive processing can be observed among collectivistic
and interdependent (Asian) cultures; individuals from individualistic, independent (Western) cultures exhibit object-focused cognitive attention (e.
Cross-cultural research has revealed that members of many collectivistic
cultures, such as Turkey see the person as part of the social network, rather than as a unique individual.
The CSC Model has previously been used successfully to demonstrate that features of the environment can subtly cue both individualistic and collectivistic
cultural mindsets, with downstream consequences for affect, behavior, and cognition.
In this article, we propose that network effects differ between collectivistic
and individualistic contexts.
Arab culture is collectivistic
, meaning there is a high degree of interdependence.
In contrast, collectivistic
cultures are those where people have stronger bonds to their groups and group membership which forms a person's self-identity.