School counseling professionals should help high school students understand themselves in the context of their collectivistic
culture and in the light of an individualistic culture by using concepts such as self-understanding or career maturity (Leong, 2002).
2010) found that exchange ideology is weaker (inclining toward social exchanges) in collectivistic
Not surprising when one studies the research done by Hofstede where while India is not seen as an individualistic society, India still is not as collectivistic
as countries like Pakistan.
In fact, several studies on cross-cultural communication have revealed that media messages tend to emphasize group-consensus appeals, family ties, and family security themes in predominantly collectivistic
countries while emphasizing self-reliance, privacy, and freedom in individualistic countries (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).
Individuals and social groups may be more collectivistic
in regard to one category of social relations and less collectivistic
in regard to some other type of social relations.
Exploring this situation through a collectivistic
emphasis of maintaining harmony within the community and the function this may serve was useful.
At essence, the Christian utopianism that Soloviev elucidated had little in common with collectivistic
or individualistic materialist philosophies.
Voters from Nordic countries who are quite affluent and harbor strong collectivistic
orientation may be more prone to put broader societal welfare ahead of individual interests, and support usage of national funds on European railways (Hofstede 1983).
In light of these results, the researchers suggested that trauma focused treatment should be culturally specific, placing less priority on recalling traumatic events centered on the individual's personal experience for individuals who come from a more collectivistic
With respect to the two nations of interest in this study, the literature suggests that Saudi Arabia tends to have collectivistic
traits while the U.
Additional research would be needed in other collectivistic
and individualistic countries to validate our findings.
As planetary environmental degradation is founded on Western, capitalistic notions that assume natural resources are infinite, it behooves us to look beyond the limitations inherent in such socio-cultural settings and seriously consider the intellectual structures and insights of more collectivistic
societies--such as the vast majority of Native America nations.
Ting Toomey (1988) distinguishes between 'individualistic, low context cultures and collectivistic
, high context cultures'  Countries like Australia, Germany, or the USA can be considered individualistic cultures, while Asian countries exemplify collectivistic
On the contrary, in a collectivistic
society, traditionally the organization is more important than the employees; group-based values such as harmony, loyalty, and cooperation and organizational goals are more emphasized and valued (Triandis, 1989).
Thanks to Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Castro, and Che Guevara he argues, "Socialism no longer required urban sophisticates to administer a collectivistic
productive and distributive system--that could be undertaken by peasant enthusiasts.