In this study, we also found that patients with coronary collateral vessels
had higher Gensini scores than those without coronary collateral vessels
The characteristic 'puff/spiral of smoke' appearance of the collateral vessels
at the level of the Circle of Willis was noted on conventional angiography.
Metabolic syndrome and collateral vessel
formation in patients with documented occluded coronary arteries: association with hyperglycaemia, insulin-resistance, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
1) Another study showed that correlation of renocaval pressure gradients with flow patterns from color Doppler sonography in collateral vessels
further aids assessment of nutcracker syndrome.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship between GGT level and presence of coronary collateral vessels
(CCV) patients with ACS.
The grade of coronary collateral development was determined according to the Cohen-Rentrop (12) method: grade 0, no filling of any collateral vessels
; grade 1, filling of side branches of the artery to be perfused by collateral vessels
without visualization of epicardial segment; grade 2, partial filling of the epicardial artery by collateral vessels
; and grade 3, as complete filling of epicardial artery by collateral vessel
If the importance of healthy endothelium for coronary collateral vessel
development is considered, ADMA level may affect the collateral development.
Coronary angiography (CAG) and computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTA) were performed and revealed that the orifice of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) originated from the pulmonary trunk; in addition, a giant RCA with significant collateral vessels
to left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) were also observed.
Moreover, the development of collateral vessels
is a physiological adaption to severe coronary artery narrowing and/or occlusion for myocardium to circumvent ischemia (9, 10).
CTA revealed chronic occlusion of the splenic artery (Figure 1), chronic infarct area at the lower pole of the spleen, collateral tortuous vascular structures at the level of the gastric fundus, and collateral vessels
from the left gastric artery to the spleen (Figure 2).
The utilization of free coils has been reported in many collateral vessels
and BT shunt in cyanotic heart diseases8 which result in residual hemodynamic overload.
7,8] Symptoms of bowel ischaemia depend on site and number of occlusion lesions, their chronicity and status of collateral vessels
In the same vein, while there may be a main artery supplying a particular piece of tissue, damage to it will simply result in collateral vessels
taking over its function.
There were multiple tortuous collateral vessels
along right ovarian vessels, some with arteriovenous shunting.
Although large epicardial or septal collateral vessels
have been stated to become visible within 2 weeks after a complete occlusion of a major coronary vessel, few findings as of now suggest that this vessel formation could not be related to medical history and clinical findings of patients or to established CAD risk factors.