The common feature of the CIJ, ABA-CEELI, HRW AT, the ICTY, and the Independent International Commission on Kosovo is the co-optive
relationship between these putatively nongovernmental organizations and national governments.
While this process has been facilitated by the existence of NGOs eager to be part of a co-optive
bargain, it is also the result of a deliberate decision on the part of interested political elites to plant their own NGOs within LEF itself.
As time went on, co-optive
actions followed: Content on race, ethnicity, gender, perhaps even sexual orientation was added to the curricula of social work education in direct proportion to the militance of social movements and their members becoming part of the profession.
Organized labor responses, if not always well known, were predictable: the AFL defended its support of welfare capitalism and alliance with the National Civic Federation as limited but worthwhile gains; in a gendered response, socialist and syndicalist labor left leaders (presumedly male), derided bosses as "sissies" and attacked the programs as co-optive
The emphasis on controlling labor through co-optive
and repressive means was replaced by broader worker rights and a decreased role for government.
As Mr Holland illustrates, this empire served as the model of the co-optive
, syncretic, multicultural empire that was to be employed by the Macedonian, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic empires which followed.
Running through many of these articles is a concern with the potential for counter-hegemonic responses by popular social forces to the power of transnational capital, the logic of neoliberalism, and the coercive and co-optive
capacity of states.