Soft power, or co-optive
power, on the other hand, requires further resources and practices, including culture, reputation, ideology, and language (Nye, 1990, pp.
As time went on, co-optive
actions followed: Content on race, ethnicity, gender, perhaps even sexual orientation was added to the curricula of social work education in direct proportion to the militance of social movements and their members becoming part of the profession.
Organized labor responses, if not always well known, were predictable: the AFL defended its support of welfare capitalism and alliance with the National Civic Federation as limited but worthwhile gains; in a gendered response, socialist and syndicalist labor left leaders (presumedly male), derided bosses as "sissies" and attacked the programs as co-optive
The shifting of the rhetorical commonplace from a normative function in civic life to its mere exploitation in commercial life testifies to the formidable co-optive
powers of commercial culture.
Persecution during the Cultural Revolution followed by the co-optive
policies of the Deng Xiaoping era have yielded a Catholic community riven by internal conflicts and professed of a faith which rejects economic modernization.
The emphasis on controlling labor through co-optive
and repressive means was replaced by broader worker rights and a decreased role for government.
Politically empowered, Dona Marlene maintains her integrity as she turns down a co-optive
offer of a government job.
While the senior leadership was drawn increasingly into a co-optive
relationship with the personnel department, the stewards continued to take up grievances and represent the concerns of their memberships.
Following the lead of earlier labor scholars such as Selig Perlman, Brody asserts that the republican ideology so appealing to the nineteenth-century working class was repeatedly subverted by ethnocultural divisions, the co-optive
capability of the major political parties, and, ultimately, the failure of a labor movement based on republican ideology to yield sustainable, practical results.
It's perhaps co-optive
on his part that he often turns his heroes into women - he seems to have some slightly fucked-up idea that women have a comer on moral behavior.
As Mr Holland illustrates, this empire served as the model of the co-optive
, syncretic, multicultural empire that was to be employed by the Macedonian, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic empires which followed.