If Hawking has provided, as he claims, a coherent cosmological model with the no boundary condition at one end but clumpiness at the other, he has answered the how possible question, the traditional philosophical question.
And if a consideration (like the no-boundary condition) rules out clumpiness at one end, why should it not equally rule out clumpiness at the other (the 'double standard' argument)?
They then added data about the clumpiness
of the cosmic microwave background radiation as measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) one year ago (S&T: May 2003, page 16).
Smaller hot and cold spots, examined by ground-based and balloon-borne experiments that have a much higher spatial resolution than COBE, also provide a snapshot of the universe's clumpiness when it became transparent.
Thus, the additional presence of hot dark matter would limit the amount of clumpiness on smaller angular scales.
Several groups using Earth-based and balloon-mounted telescopes have reported detecting clumpiness
on angular scales around 1 [degrees].
Forces other than the Big Bang may cause the clumpiness
and the motion.
Although it looks smooth and symmetrical, some scientists found evidence of clumpiness
, suggesting the cluster was created by the merger of several smaller galaxy associations.