The closed Universe
Friedmann - Lemaitre - Robertson Walker (FLRW) spacetime metric is given by [4-10]:
If the composition of the universe consists only of matter and no other forms of energy, then there is a density known as the critical density which divides an open universe which is forever expanding from a closed universe
which expands to a point, then eventually contracts due to the self-gravity of the matter contained within it, and the in-between position between open and closed is, as I say, a universe with a critical density, is what is called a flat universe.
A closed universe
, however, would have a limit, meaning that it would expand like a huge cosmic explosion, and would then collapse in u on itself.
A closed universe
has more deceleration and is smaller than an open universe.
The film is more impressive in its visual sensuality, its depiction of a vanished world and fascination with the rituals of the bizarre, closed universe
But the difference in volume between an open and a closed universe
becomes significant only when astronomers consider a chunk of universe containing distant objects.
Instead, we can enter into the closed universe
of pornographic fantasy, but only if we also accept the fact that such an escape is one of lies and limitations, and recognize that there is real life outside the fantasy.
At various points, Yourgrau also relates the idea of a timeless, closed universe
to Godel's liberal, mathematical ontology underlying his view of formal systems.
Noted Cambridge University physicist Stephen Hawking predicates his "quantum cosmology" on the model of a closed universe
because, at bottom, he feels that finiteness is neater than infiniteness.
where [psi], [theta] and [phi] are comoving space coordinates (0 [less than or equal to] f [less than or equal to] [pi], for closed Universe
, 0 [less than or equal to] [psi] [less than or equal to] [infinity], for open and flat Universe, 0 [less than or equal to] [theta] [less than or equal to] [pi], 0 [less than or equal to] [phi] [less than or equal to] 2[pi]), t is the proper time shown by any observer clock in the comoving system.
He instead argues for restrictions on the determination of such events by the arche of divine providence, thus leaving them anarchic with respect to its order but capable of introducing new beginnings in the otherwise closed universe
Dark matter, the question of an open or closed universe
, and inflationary theory are all tackled successfully with style and grace.
The cosmos would teeter between an open universe, in which the expansion continues forever, and a closed universe
, in which complete collapse is inevitable.