In the field of the quantification of designing elements, (McGarva and Mullineux, 1993) made a research on the closed planar curve that expressed by the Fourier coefficient and proposed the theoretical method that using harmonic wave to represent the

closed curve to make quantitative analysis on the design.

The eight

closed curve in s-v phase diagram and eight separate points in Poincaree section show that the response of pipe wall is the 8T periodic motion.

However every figure must have at least one borderline

closed curve, and every figure must be a joint piece, yet can't separate it into at least two unconnected parts.

lies in a region defined by the intersection of two circles, a plane

closed curve, and the half plane on the right of a vertical line.

Let [gamma] be a

closed curve of length 2[pi]r: If x : g [right arrow] [R.

In his mathematical project, Pardon proved that a

closed curve can be made convex without permitting any two points on the curve to get closer to one another.

Let us prove by contradiction that there is at most one

closed curve contained in [C.

Suppose that the template is a

closed curve and always non-self intersecting.

If the product of H(j[omega])G(j[omega]) is mapped in a complex plane, a

closed curve is obtained.

The first step is to observe that although the value of the vector potential at a given point of physical space is not gauge-invariant (since in general A([Xi]) [not equal to] A([Xi]) + grad [Lambda]([Xi])), the integral of A around a

closed curve, [Gamma],

Students may also discover that the path can create a

closed curve (see fig.

In [A14] he showed that if IF is a rectifiable simple

closed curve, then [gamma] \ [gamma] has at most one global branch, and [gamma] \ [gamma] has finite area.

infinity]] is the

closed curve (called the Szego curve) in the unit disk which is given by

The primitive notions are:

closed curve (sets), rectangles (universe), shading (if a set is empty the whole area that represents it is shaded), writing an x (if a set is non-empty, an x is written in its representing area), drawing lines (if a set is represented by more than one area, we draw an x in each of them and connect the x's by lines).

In the drum's case, the solutions specify the vertical displacement of each point on a surface bounded by a

closed curve, such as a circle or rectangle.