This work implemented a two-stage clonal expansion model of cancer (Moolgavkar et al.
Although implementations of BBDR models for low-dose risk estimation have thus far been limited mainly to cancer modeled using a two-stage clonal expansion framework, we believe that the problems we have identified are not restricted to a particular disease or to a particular class of models, but will be present in some form in all attempts at BBDR modeling.
TCR V[beta]-gene usage in selected T-cell populations can be used to detect and monitor T-cell activation and clonal expansions.
The assay was further applied to samples from cancer patients, demonstrating its ability to screen for clonal expansions in small biopsies obtained in a routine clinical setting.
The strain related to the Hajj pilgrimage was derived from clonal expansion
within the ST11 complex/ ET-37 complex (3).
and horizontal gene transfer may contribute to the spread of antimicrobial drug--resistance integrons in these organisms.
The population structure of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain: clonal expansion
This finding suggests independent events and argues against clonal expansion
of Cip-R meningococci.
The numbers of 19A isolates increased consistently from 1996 through 2003, which suggests that single clonal expansion
of ST320 was responsible for the increase of serotype 19A isolates during this period (Figure 4).
Enteritidis strains are tightly linked geographically and temporally by clonal expansion
, this 3-enzyme approach should provide an effective differentiation process.
To demonstrate that this deviation from 50% is not a sampling artifact or chance effect, we restricted analysis to the 88 unique ST-host combinations, which largely eliminates the possible effects of clonal expansion
within host, and performed a permutation test to assess the possible role of chance.
This biological cost could explain the lack of clonal expansion
of meningococcal isolates that acquired resistance to rifampin.
We must monitor the emergence of resistance in this enteric pathogen to differentiate between the acquisition of resistance during treatment (mutations occurring in different bacterial strains) or clonal expansion
of a successful strain by person-to-person spread (identical mutations associated with a single strain).
The close relatedness and high prevalence of this virulent pathogen argue for a clonal expansion
advantage of this particular clone.
Hence, tobacco carcinogen exposure of growing lungs could quite plausibly have a far greater likelihood of producing larger, more biologically significant clonal expansions
compared with exposures that occur after lung growth has slowed or ceased.